Whitby File, 2012
This work publishes with a licence BY-NC-SA Creative Commons License
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- Sensitise to the students on the importance of an efficient distribution for the success of the company and the satisfaction of the customers.
- Present the concepts, structures and methods used in the field of the commercial distribution to pose, organise, execute and control the tasks of this field.
- Present applications to cases and concrete situations of the commercial dynamics.
- Boost a form to think and act on the field of the distribution and the strengths that in him operate.
%u2022 Deepen in the practical appearances of manufacturers and retail.
%u2022 Endow to the students of the necessary knowledge of the new systems of distribution.
%u2022 Prepare to students that wish to integrate to a company of distribution; through an indispensable theoretical training to be able to access to the places of control and a practical training so that they are operative from the moment of his incorporation to the company.
MODULE OF COMMERCIALISATION
Subject 1. The Commercial Distribution
Subject 2. Design and Election of the Channel of Distribution
Subject 3. Dynamics of the Channels
MODULE OF COMMERCIAL FORMATS
Subject 4. Commercial formats: Manufacturers and Wholesale
Subject 5. Commercial formats Retailers (I)
Subject 6. Commercial formats Retailers (II)
MODULE OF RETAILING
Subject 7. Planning of the Management and Retail Direction
Subject 8. Behaviour to Go shopping of the Consumer
Subject 9. Ethical and Legal appearances of the Retail Trade
Subject 10. Retail Financial strategy
Subject 11. Strategy of Retail Location
Subject 12. Strategy of Retail Logistics
Subject 13. Merchandising
Subject 14. The Service to the Customer in the Retail Trade
Subject 15. Evaluation, Implementation and Control of the Management and Retail Direction
B-learning: "Training Combined" that consists in an educational process that includes face-to-face classes (in the classroom) and activities of and-learning through the Virtual Campus (is not necessary the presence in the classroom, the student chooses when and where wishes to realise the activity posed).
Temporalización: NO FACE-TO-FACE = 1,5 FACE-TO-FACE credits = 4,5 credits
FACE-TO-FACE activities: in the classroom
1. Exhibitions by part of the professor on the theoretical information
2. Activities realised of conjoint way between students and professor
- The students will realise, along the course, 2 proofs that will delete the distinct parts of the temario through the continuous evaluation
Activities NO FACE-TO-FACE (and-LEARNING): out of the classroom
1. Through the virtual campus "sessions", in which they will incorporate documents in pdf, researches in Internet, reading of documents.
2. Tutorías Virtual through which will resolve the questions posed for the development of an effective participation.
3. Delivery of documents elaborated in relation with the activities
Degree in ADE. Faculty CCEE and EE. Cuatrimestral. Through this guide pretends : 1. Sensitise to the students on the importance of an efficient distribution for the success of the company and the satisfaction of the customers. 2. Present the concepts, structures and methods used in the field of the commercial distribution to pose, organise, execute and control the tasks of this field. 3. Present applications to cases and concrete situations of the commercial dynamics. 4. Boost a form to think and act on the field of the distribution and the strengths that in him operate.
The systems of distribution arise with an aim: do arrive the products of the manufacturer to the consumer through the intermediaries choosing the most suitable channel and the means or able roads to provide the best service to the lower possible cost. A product can result very convenient for a segment of consumers, but if this does not find really available for the consumers according to the utilities of the distribution (suitable product, in the suitable place and in the suitable moment), simply the product will not exist in the market and neither the manufacturers will be able to sell it, neither the consumers will satisfy his need or will do it in terms less convenient whereas his possibilities of election will see reduced. The distribution exerts diverse and very important functions, as the ones of transport, fractionation, storage, services, finance and assumption of risks. The protagonists of the channel are each one of the companies or operators that assume functions of economic value in a channel. The channel is the way been still in the process of commercialisation of a product from the manufacturer until the industrial user or final consumer.
01_distrib_comerc_dejuan.Pdf 2777Kb Season PDF DOWNLOAD
The decisions of the channel of distribution find between the most complex and difficult that has to face the company. The decisions of the company on the channel affect to all the other decisions of marketing. Each system of distribution supposes a different level of costs and of sales and arrives to a specific segment of customers. The majority of the manufacturers try to form a channel of distribution (a series of interdependent organisations that take part in the process to attain that a product or service was available for the use of the consumer or company). The design of the channel has to determine the level of services and establish the aims of the channel and his restrictions. To continuation the company identifies the most important alternatives for the channel, such as the type and the number of intermediaries. They exist a lot of classes of intermediaries from wholesalers, representatives and agents until retailers. Each alternative has to evaluate in diverse function criteria (compensatory, no compensatory, economic, of control and of adaptation). The management of the channel of distribution requires the selection of intermediaries and his constant evaluation.
The channel is dynamic and in him take place all a series of relations between his members. These can decide integrate or externalizar determinate functions to realise his commercial activities. The integration involves a strategy of external development of a company. The vertical integration supposes a fusion of two or more companies situated to distinct level in the channel of distribution. It can be to backwards or to in front. The horizontal integration produces between companies situated to the same level of the channel, with the purpose to complement , reach economies of scale or achieve sinergias. The vertical integration covers to the corporate systems, to the administered and to the contractual. By his part, the horizontal integration can be space or no space, as it suppose the merchants association inside a zone or simply an agreement to realise a determinate activity. The conflicts arise when it exists a situation of disagreement between the members of the channel of distribution with regard to aims and functions. A conflict can be horizontal, vertical or multicanal. Although the ideal is not a total absence of conflict, since some conflicts can ensure that the members of the channel are not passive. Some solutions that can apply to delete a conflict are the exercise of the leadership, the negotiation, the diplomacy or the arbitration.
The classification of the commercial formats wholesalers based in the functions developed engloba the following typology: wholesalers of complete and wholesale services of services limited, with formulas like the %u201Ccash and carry%u201D. The commercial formats based in the links kept between wholesale companies distinguish between the independent wholesalers and the associated, that group to the voluntary chains and to the head offices of purchase. According to his location the wholesalers can be %u201Cin origin%u201D or %u201Cof destination%u201D. Finally, they distinguish the intermediate agents, that realise functions of the trade wholesale, but do not arrive to possess the products neither the property and the industrial distributors, that sell to manufacturers in place to do it to retailers: brokers, representatives or comisionistas.
They are very varied the characteristics that differentiate to some retailers of others, therefore, the classification of the commercial formats can realise on the base of very diverse criteria. The classifications considered takes into account the following: the activity realised or products sold, the relations of property between the parts and the existent links between the retailers, the location, as well as the strategy followed or the system of sales. The classification of the commercial formats based in the retailer engloba the following typology: (1) according to the activity or products sold; (2) according to the relations of property and links that exist between them; (3) according to the location; and (4) according to the strategy followed or system of sales.
The door-to-door selling includes distinct modalities: door to door, in meeting, routine and multinivel. Although this last is totally legal, the sale in pyramid is forbidden in Spain. The travelling or sedentary sale characterises fundamentally by the no existence of a permanent establishment where realise the sale. In this type of commercial format stand out the mercadillos. By his part, in the Direct Marketing there is not a physical presence of the seller. It is an available system to distance that realises through direct media. Like this it distinguishes : the sale by correspondence, by catalogue, by telephone, by television, by computer and through machines expendedoras.
The taking of retail decisions constitutes a sequential process that includes the following activities: (1) analysis of the situation, (2) development of the retail strategy, (3) application of the retail strategy, (4) systems of control. First it has to realise an analysis of the situation, that include to the so much competitive surroundings like legal and ethical, and to the consumers. In the following happen the company has to schedule his resources to achieve his aims, designing for this the retail strategy (of market, financial, organizacional, of location and logistical). To apply the strategy, the company realises activities of management and commercial. The last step in the process of taking of retail decisions consists in evaluating the effectiveness of the strategy and of his implementation.
The space behaviour of purchase of a consumer derives in the selection of the establishment that realise, and is influenciada by the characteristics of the establishment and of the own consumer (internal and external). The term CIC characterises by the aim to optimise the relation quality-cost of the purchase realised, and for having a component lúdico that involves that the activity to %u201Cgo shopping%u201D can suppose for a lot of consumers entertainment and a form entertained to happen the time. Analyse the frame that allows to interpret the CIC of the consumer allows to the specialists in retailing go further of simply know the distinct influences in the purchase and develop a global understanding of how the consumers take his decisions of purchase. The steps of the process of purchase include: the recognition of a need, the research of information, the evaluation of the alternatives, the purchase and the evaluation post-purchase. It is key to know how the retailers can influence in each one of them.
The difference between the legal and ethical norms roots in that the first are of forced fulfillment and the second are of fulfillment suggested. The ethical norms arise because of the slowness of the legal norms and to the imprescindibilidad of these norms for the retail management. They show which is the best behaviour that can follow a retailer. There are times that the ethical behaviour and the no ethical can mean a small difference, as for example in the bribe commercial. Other no ethical behaviours cover the sales realised with lower quality of the demanded by the customers (under the knowledge of the retailer) or the incentives that pay the providers to the sellers to increase the sale of his products. The ethical norms of the retail direction include appearances like the no disclosure of information by part of an employee, the utilisation of business goods for personal ends or the change of company by part of an employee.
The financial strategy retailer is based in the financial aims of the retail company and constitutes the base of any attempt of creation of a company. The financial information is essential in any retail business. The three countable instruments more employed to obtain this information are: %u201CAccount of Losses and Gains%u201D (CPG), %u201CBalance%u201D and %u201CDetermination of the Cash-Flow%u201D. One of the financial aims more important is to achieve the maximum economic profitability (ROI) that depends so much of the Margin on Sales or Margin (M) as of the Rotation of the active (R). The retailer can opt by three strategies: profitability via margin, profitability via rotation or 3) the strategic model of profitability, that combines both.
The analysis of the commercial areas has been during long recognised like one of the fundamental previous requirements for the direction of marketing, when allowing an effective allocation of the resources of the company and a greater knowledge of the behaviour of the consumer. The location, the size and the characteristics of the establishment are essential appearances, of which depend the competitiveness of the business and the survival of the company. If the emplazamientos choose properly, will contribute a competitive advantage for the company.
The logistics or physical distribution constitutes the group of operations carried out so that the product visit the way that is distant from his point of production until the one of consumption, to satisfy to the maximum the demand of the market in his slopes: term, cost, quality and opportunity. The logistics no only limits to the storage and transport, but it realises numerous and very varied functions, such as the forecast of the demand, the picking, the storage or the transport.
They are many and varied the definitions of merchandising, but still without arriving to an only concept, what results him interesting for the retailer is to apply properly his technicians. Of the types of merchandising resaltar that the retailer no always will have the capacity to apply them all, will have to opt, inside his possibilities by that or those that report him greater profitability. This depends so much of the technical appearances, economic and psychological that wish to apply as of the tastes, wishes, motivations and states of spirit of the consumers. With regard to the technicians so much in the interior as in the outside of the point of sale, it is necessary to signal that it is necessary a conjoint application so that it achieve a harmony of his elements. Can apply in systems of mixed exploitation (traditional and autoservicio) or in the traditional trade. The disposal is fundamental in the management and configures of decisive form the image that receive the customers of the point of sale. At present, it is impossible a serious %u201Cpractice%u201D of the merchandising without computer means, however these are allocated only to some big elites of the trade, need systems more flexible and of greater scope.
The service to the customer has an importance trascendente to the hour to keep and recover customers. A bad service to the customer can cancel entirely a fantastic product. It has to to remember to the customer the possibility and the interest of the company in that it demand and say anything that have not satisfied him, so that the company can correct the error and compensate him.
The companies have to evaluate, implement and control the management and retail direction. The companies have to carry out four types of control: the control of the annual plan, the control of profitability; the control of the efficiency and the strategic control. The retail-audit is an analysis of the company that carries out with the intention to determine the problematic areas and recommend a plan of action that improve the results.
|Session 1||Session of work whose main aims are: 1) know the functions of a company of distribution; 2) distinguish the intermediaries in the channel of distribution of textile fashion; 3) know the flows of the channel of distribution of textile-fashion; 4) deepen in the idiosyncrasy of the distribution.|
|S1. Marry_inditex. Channel Distrb_HTML.zip||2430Kb||Zip||DOWNLOAD|
|Session 2||Session of work on a real company (Brudy) whose main aims are: 1) analyse which decisions had to take a real company in relation with several appearances of his design of the channel of distribution and why; 2) know the aims of the channel to review by the company; 3)review the strategy of communication that has to apply the company.|
|S2. Marry Brudy_HTML.zip||88Kb||Zip||DOWNLOAD|
|Session 3||Session of virtual work where the main aims are: 1) Review the design and election of the channel of distribution in concrete cases of leading companies to international level; and 2) Deepen in the stage %u201Crestrictions of the channel%u201D to the hour to design a channel of distribution.|
|S3. It marry_Channel restricc_HTML.zip||1170Kb||Zip||DOWNLOAD|
|Session 4||Session of virtual work centred in the franchise, how mount it, where, which parts take part, typology of franchises, key elements, etc...|
|S4. Marry Franchise_HTML.zip||79Kb||Zip||DOWNLOAD|
|Session 5||Session of virtual work whose main aims are: 1) Distinguish between %u201CShopping centre Scheduled CCP%u201D and %u201CShopping centre Urbano or Open CCU/CCA%u201D; 2) Reflexionar on the typology of consumers that attend to the CCU/CCA and the CCPP to realise his shopping.|
|S5. It marry Shopping centre BID_HTML.zip||74Kb||Zip||DOWNLOAD|
|Session 6||Session of virtual work based in a real case. The zone to study is real and the problem to analyse is a problem that at present has an urban zone of new creation of the Alicante place of Saint Vicente of the Raspeig. The main aim is to analyse and propose commercial solutions to improve the commercial appeal of an urban zone of recent creation in Saint Vicente of the Raspeig, with some peculiar characteristics.|
|S6. Marry SV_reality_HTML.zip||2783Kb||Zip||DOWNLOAD|
|Session 7||Session of María Náyade Berne Pastor. Session of virtual work whose main subject is the merchandising and the application of his technicians, what comports the determination of a series of appearances such as the disposal and conception of the establishment, the animation of the point of sale, the election of the assortment and presentation of the articles or the management of the space of the shelvings (management of the linear). This last is increasingly important for the retailers if they want to obtain a good rotation and profitability of his products.|
|Description:||It complements with the Subject 13 of the book: Of Juan Vigaray, M.D. (2004) %u201CCommercialisation and Retailing: Commercial Distribution Applied%u201D, Ed. Pearson Education-Prentice Hall. ISBN: 84-205-4372-1.|
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